Hovercrafts: what are they, why are they needed and how are they arranged.
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Hovercrafts: what are they, why are they needed and how are they arranged.

All about starship boats that can be used to navigate in shallow waters, swampy areas and even ice
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Trawler yachts are rightfully considered off-road on water. Indeed, such boats can go in stormy conditions. Hovercrafts (HPVs), or aeroplanes, are able to navigate through shoals, swamps and ice. They are often used by special services to supply and transport passengers to hard-to-reach areas.

With the arrival of winter for most of the recreational fleet, navigation closes, boats are put on shore and put in order, preparing for the next season. The ice stiffens the waterways and thus makes navigation impossible and even with the arrival of spring, the rivers are not immediately released. When there is not enough time for a warm season and you already want to go out on the water, regardless of the weather and the environment, you can consider buying a hovercraft.Take hunters and winter fishing enthusiasts, for example, regardless of the weather, sometimes climb into such a maze that you don't seem to go there voluntarily. They make their own route, know where they are going and can change it at their discretion. If the question is about the supply of inaccessible areas, passenger transportation in them, maneuver will not be able to maneuver, let alone stop the navigation. In such conditions an ordinary boat will not be suitable. It is not only that it has to break the ice, so on its way it can easily meet a shoal and in such conditions it is necessary to have a multipurpose ship-truck.

Trawler yachts are rightfully considered to be off-roaders on water, but to go in storm conditions is one thing, but it is safe to pass the ice and shoals it is already impossible for them.

Hovercraft areas of application

Situations in which the vehicle must pass through water bodies of variable depth, alternating water, swamp, land are also found in industries associated with geological exploration, rescue and of course the military. In their arsenal there are always the best technical solutions that society can offer and among the aviation and tracked vehicles there are often hovercrafts.
Hovercraft or as they are called shortly, hovercraft is a ship with dynamic buoyancy maintenance. This means that the ship is kept afloat by overpressurizing the hull with air.

In fact, theВП in motion does not touch the surface, and floats a few millimeters from the medium on which it moves, which allows you to move on different types of surfaces.

These vessels are to the taste of both military and rescuers, professionals and hunters and fishermen. They are also used in passenger and cargo transportation, including on voyage lines. In some regions, air-cushion all-terrain vehicles are used instead of the usual buses. It is not uncommon for them to be ordered privately, as transport or for leisure. They are successfully used where other vehicles simply will not pass, and aviation is economically several times less profitable.

History of the first PICs

The idea of creating a ship in which air would be pumped under the bottom of the ship dates back to 1716 and was proposed by the Swedish philosopher Emmanuel Swedenborg. After him, the idea was developed by the British William Froude and John Tornicroft, the Swedish Gustav Laval, the Austrian engineer Dagobert von Tommamühl, the French Charles Terik and the Soviet scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. But due to the lack of development of technology at that time, the idea was only realized in 1915. Austrian Dagobert Muller von Tomamyulyav designed a hovercraft similar in principle. It was an experimental torpedo glider with air injection under the hull. The main advantage of this boat was supposed to be speed, but on tests the air injection under the hull gave insignificant effect and the project was closed.

Work on the OHRP continued, as speed was still the main goal in the development of the fleet. The world's first experimental skega-type hovercraft were built in 1934-1939 under the supervision of Soviet designer Vladimir Levkov.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uPOwRA2xRBc.
Notice how easy it is for 4 people to turn the boat by hand, with a weight of 8.6 tonnes.

Levkov's first ships resembled a catamaran and looked more like an airplane or a rocket than a ship. They were not yet wearing the flexible fence that is now usual, but they could already walk both over water and hard surface.
Later, in 1955, the British inventor Cockerell Christopher applied for a patent for a new design of the PIC. It was proposed that a flexible fence (made of rubberized fabric) should be used to keep air under the ship. The idea was not taken seriously at first, but practice had shown the opposite and the skirt«was a» new development of the PIA and is still in use today.

Modern ORP design

More than half a century has passed, the technology has been honed and now it is something exotic, and quite understandable vehicle, which consists of a body made of aluminum alloys and composite materials, the power plant of marine design, marching and pressure screws, as well as saturation, including interior. Hovercraft is a piece piece product and it is impossible to find 2 identical vessels. They are not just made to order, but with detailed work with the customer. A complete set, saturation and manufacturers of the equipment are stipulated at early stages of the project. The customer's imagination is limited only by the budget and rules of the classification society, because the project and all components will have to be coordinated and if changes in the design will affect the survivability of the vessel, they may not be missed at the design stage.
Taking into account that the PWP works in extreme conditions the saturation of the vessel is paid special attention. All ship components must be not only reliable, but also easy to repair and interchangeable, because if you stall in the middle of a frozen river, while the custom-made import part comes, the river will have time to melt. It will be great if the house is downstream. That's why most of the parts are produced in the nearest auto shop.

Among recreational and commercial fleets, chamber-type air-cushioned vessels where the air holds the skirt or inflatable cylinders - skegas - are widespread. Such design is reliable enough and even at rupture of separate elements it has good repairability (as an example, at rupture of a sector of a skirt the new aperture is broken through and it is fixed on a place). The most important thing is that in this arrangement the PWA acquires amphibious properties, being able to move on the ground, water, ice, swamps. Excessive pressure lifts it at some distance from the surface, thus reducing friction during movement to a minimum, and the height of the skirt on which the ship will rise depends on the height of the obstacle, which can be overcome by the boat mainly it is not more than 1 m. Thanks to the effect «of gliding» through the air, the cushions develop impressive speeds, but this also affects their handling, as there is virtually no contact with the surface.
Speaking about a pillow, if its design provides cylinders, they have a pumping system and pressure in them the skipper regulates, as pressure of tyres on the car. For water, as for a good road, you need to inflate harder, but if there are obstacles, the pressure decreases, and then the balloon flows more easily around the unevenness.
In itself a flexible fencing is one of expense, as at finding on snags, constant transitions on hummocks it periodically breaks or simply is erased with time about a ground. But even after serious damage, the hovercraft continues to move, perhaps under the rolls, with less responsiveness, but still the hovercraft will go.

PRS management

At first glance, the wheelhouse looks more like a spacious cabin of a car and on the captain's seat you feel more like driving a car with a rather familiar dashboard, but the roar of motors and atypical scenery behind the windshield indicate that this is a ship-to-ship. However, this visual similarity is very deceptive. When you look at it, additional controls are detected. One gas and rudder can not get off here, because do not forget that the SUV a little aircraft and floats above the surface, though at a very low altitude.

Only to go forward you need not only to add gas, but also to adjust the propeller pitch, and turns on the hovercrafts - a whole art. Given that the ship does not have direct contact with the surface, simply turning the rudder (vertical rudders) will most likely continue in the same direction only sideways. In order to turn around, you need to tilt the boat towards the turn, in some cases, you need to deflect and accurately calculate the speed at which you are maneuvering, and you need to add gas when repositioning the rudders. Of course, the speed of hovercrafts has to be specified according to the TTX of the specific model, but 100 km/h is not the limit for most representatives. Also, due to the lack of contact with the surface, the hovercrafts are sensitive to side wind and start to be pulled down, while the headwind will brake the boat. Also the hovercrafts can not overcome long ascents, although the landfall with a short steep ascent is not difficult for an experienced captain, often a trick is used when climbing, do not go in a little at an angle.
At the end of any trip, one has to stop somehow, but there is no brake on the hoverboard as such and the braking path is not short because of the extremely low friction with the surface. The most effective way to stop is to turn the ship 180° and stop with the marching screws, but it can also be done by changing the angle of the blades toreverse, and on water to reset the speed, you can deflate the cushion and lay the bottom on the water, it's like going out of planing mode on a regular boat.
ORP production in Russia
Find a company that is building PRS in Russia is not difficult, the Internet sites of manufacturers and most of them collect boats from domestic materials and equipment. Below is a list of the main companies producingВП and as you can see, there is something to choose from. Such a number of manufacturers is due to the demand for these all-terrain vehicles, the geography of the country and especially the working conditions of transport in the north have formed a market for services involving hovercraft.


Hovercraft manufacturers...

Company City Web site . Proposed hovercrafts
1 Christy Hovercraft Saint Petersburg http://christyhovercraft.ru/ Passenger seats - 4...12 h;.
Payload - 370...950 kg;..
Max speed - 70...100 km/h.

2 Neptune Shipbuilding Company Leningrad region, Podporozhye https://hovercraft.ru/. Passenger seats - 2 ... 39 hours;.
Payload - 150... 2100 kg;..
Max speed - 70...75 km/h.

3 Experimental design group "Splav". Nizhny Novgorod http://www.splav350.ru/ Passenger seats - 3 ... 4 hours;.
Payload - 400 kg;...
Max speed - 85 km/h.

4 Aircraft Nizhny Novgorod http://www.aerohod.ru/ Passenger seats - 6 ... 48 h;.
Useful load - 600... 60000 kg;..
Max speed - 50...190 km/h.

5 Aerotrade Irkutsk http://www.airboat.ru/ Passenger seats - 4...9 h;.
Payload - 800...1800 kg;..
Max speed - 70...180 km/h.

6 RosPromResource Nizhni Novgorod region, Balakhna raion, settlement Hydrotorf. http://rushovercraft.com/ Passenger seats - 7 ... 18 h;.
Payload - 1070...2500 kg;..
Max speed - 70 km/h.

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