If you want romance on a land vacation, it's time to go to the surrounding area.
History in the towers. The route to the Tolbukhin «lighthouse...»
In 1719 Peter I ordered to put beacons on the Kotlin Spit and islands of the Gulf of Finland. The tsar himself made a drawing of the first lighthouse for the new capital, which now serves as a landmark at the entrance to the
This is not only the first (after Arkhangelsk) lighthouse in Russia, but for a long time it was equipped with a telegraph and telephone. And during the USSR epoch the first wind power station was installed on an artificial island where the lighthouse stands. On the eve of the
You can't just climb up the lighthouse and visit them - it's a secure facility. Only the Peterhof «Southern Lighthouse in the Lower» Park of the Peterhof «Museum Reserve is freely accessible in the Leningrad Region. But now it is possible»to approach to an island on which Tolbukhin «stands, by boat together with the organized excursion.
The journey continues at the lighthouses of the
The southern route. Red Hill and Shepelevsky «Beacon»
Four years ago along the opposite shores of the Gulf of Finland were laid Northern and Southern routes to the lighthouses of the Leningrad region. The southern route began with the inspection of the Irbensky «»floating lighthouse, which stood on a prank in Lomonosov harbour. Then the bus took tourists to Krasnaya Gorka and to Shepelevsky «lighthouse.
In the area of Krasnaya Gorka - the narrowest and therefore the most dangerous place in the Gulf of Finland: the fairway is laid close to the shore. This bay was discovered by Peter I when the siege of Vyborg was going on. The tsar founded a guard fort, later a lighthouse appeared a little aside. Now it is on the territory of the military unit, but it is beautifully visible from behind the
Part of the pleasure of the trip was a walk along the shore of the Gulf of Finland to Fort Krasnaya «Gorka,»which in the Great Patriotic War was the center of defense of the Oranienbaum patch. It was also revived by enthusiasts. They set up a museum there with guns and railway cannons in the open air.
On the same route there is
The northern route. Kronstadt
The northern route was laid in the opposite direction. On the Scandinavian coast of the Gulf of Finland tourists were shown the lighthouse Stirsudden«,»Cape Fleet and the sights of Kronstadt: St. Nicholas Cathedral, and not yet the «wooden lighthouse Ust-Rogatka»«
Later, the «Nam project had a bright» evening water tour around the lighthouses of Kronstadt harbours with a landing on Kronshlot Island and a visit to the abandoned Lower Nikolaev Lighthouse, which has been out of operation for over a century.
It also included the rear and front lighthouses of the St. Petersburg Sea Canal, and not so visible, but the oldest operating lighthouse on the territory of Kronstadt - Friedrichstadt. Its official name is the Luminous «Sign of Military Corner No. 1, and it was»established already in 1852. It marked the
But only the founders of the project Olga Isayeva and Andrei Shpartyko, as well as Anastasia Makarova, who joined them, approved the routes, as life made its corrections. «The Irbensky» floating lighthouse was handed over to the World Ocean Institute after repair and sent to Kaliningrad. And in Fort Konstantin «in Kronstadt» the Museum of the Lighthouse Service was opened, created by the same enthusiasts. It became clear that this is now a key point in all routes.
A beacon in the bushes. Museum of the Beacon Service
The Museum of Beacon Service was opened in Fort «Constantine» by two
The pride of the Museum of Beacon Service is the first flashing lens in Russia. It is a huge composite lens Fresnel, with which to collect light and increase the range of the beam on the lighthouse on the island of Seskar. The same principle is used in the manufacture of car headlights and traffic lights. For lighthouse service of the XIX century the invention of Frenchman Fresnel became a breakthrough akin to electricity. He would know that he was trying for Russia.
The first flashing lens in Russia
The lens was installed on the Cescar Lighthouse in 1858. The lighthouse, by the way, was also the first of its kind - it was the first fully cast-iron lighthouse in Russia. The lens of one and a half tons of glass and metal was detachable, it was taken from Great Britain for a year and assembled on the spot as a designer. It was the second category with a diameter of 40 meters (the first category had a diameter of 80 meters). The lower and upper sectors stood stationary and shone at 27 kilometers with white fire. There were eight oil burners in the centre. The sescara lens had sashes and a rotating drum. Each sash formed its own beam. There were 12 rays, like chamomile. When the beam passed by the ship, the watchman perceived it as a flash. It could be seen for 30 kilometres. Flashes like that happened every 30 seconds.
In 1987 the lens of the Seskar lighthouse was dismantled and unloaded on the shore in the area of Kronstadt and K .
There is also a drum mechanism that actuates a flashing lens in the Museum of Beacon Service. The one that stood on the Shepelevsky «Lighthouse from» 1928 to the mid 50s
And it worked like this: a steel rope was wound on the drum, on which hung a weight of 250-300 kg. According to the principle of the cuckoo clock, the weight dropped down, the drum rotated and transmitted the movement to the lens. And the lighthouse keeper ran up a spiral staircase with a can of oil every night, poured oil into the burner, corrected wicks, took off soot, cleaned windows, manually lit the burner and wound the mechanism. If everything worked well, he'd go to rest. But at the same time, the next watchman would run upstairs again in a few hours, and everything would repeat itself.
Souvenir from Vladivostok
Hope for rest beacon keepers gave acetylene, which began to apply in the early XX century. This gas burns well, almost does not give soot and is stored in cylinders, which gives a long autonomous work of the lighthouse. It's not like throwing wood or sipping oil several times a night.
At the beginning of XX century plants for the production of acetylene were supplied to all fleets of Russia, but did not have time to establish production of their equipment, and until 1933 bought imported.
By the way, acetylene flashing lights were automatically switched on at night thanks to Nobel laureate Nils Gustaf Dalén. At the beginning of XX century he invented the solar valve. The central black rod warmed up during the day and cut off the gas supply, while at night it cooled down and let it pass. That solar valve that is kept in the Museum of Beacon Service came from Vladivostok, and friends of the museum helped to get it. Only six months the find couldn't be delivered to Kronstadt: the old equipment wasn't taken to the plane. It was necessary to wait, when acquaintances will drive by train.
The exposition also has its own highlight - a portable electric torch for subversive groups. It has an infrared radiation mode. This range is invisible to the eye. Such a flashlight could be placed on the shore of the enemy, disguised in the bushes. You can't see it without a device, and you can't see your ship, walk, use it. The lantern worked automatically up to four days, and then it was necessary to start the mechanism again or to remove the beacon.